For those who’re a nurse with an curiosity in info know-how and the way it pertains to affected person care, there’s a nursing specialty for you in Nursing Informatics. By no means earlier than has healthcare and know-how been as intricately linked as within the 21st century. Trendy healthcare depends closely on digital medical and private well being info, surgical robotics, speedy bedside charting, and so on. to offer high quality and environment friendly healthcare.
However, what’s Nursing Informatics? There are complicated definitions of the specialty, however the easy reply is it’s utilizing pc know-how techniques help affected person care. Informaticists develop and monitor evidence-based practices, medical analysis, set up clear communication requirements in affected person care, adhere to state and federal healthcare laws, and so forth. Briefly, Nursing Informatics is a quickly rising area with a promising future and compensation.
- 1 Methodology
- 1.1 1. Grantham College
- 1.2 2. Jacksonville College
- 1.3 Three. Chamberlain College
- 1.4 four. Aspen College
- 1.5 5. Walden College
- 1.6 6. American Sentinel College
- 1.7 7. Ferris State College
- 1.8 eight. Capella College
- 1.9 9. Thomas Edison State College
- 1.10 10. Grand Canyon College
- 1.11 11. College of South Alabama
- 1.12 12. West Coast College
- 1.13 13. Nova Southeastern College
- 1.14 14. Western Governors College-Tennessee
- 1.15 15. Nebraska Methodist School
- 1.16 16. Wilkes College
- 1.17 17. Drexel College
- 1.18 18. Allen School
- 1.19 19. College of Pittsburgh
- 1.20 20. Holy Names College
20 Greatest Worth RN/ADN to MSN On-line Diploma Packages
An Web search exhibits a number of on MSN diploma with Nursing Informatics concentrations for these with a BSN. Nevertheless, there are additionally on-line RN to MSN bridge packages obtainable, a few of which, will permit college students to earn a BSN concurrently. Greatest Medical Levels seemed for packages resulting in a MSN in Nursing Informatics. It must be famous that nurses who maintain a baccalaureate diploma in a non-nursing main may additionally be admitted to RN to MSN curricula.
Bridge packages (principally packages which fills the hole between an Affiliate Diploma or nursing diploma) permit working nurses to acquire a MSN in a shorter time period. Earlier than committing to any program you need to examine together with your state’s licensing board to find out if the diploma will assist you to be licensed and/or licensed. Included on this rating are the core and speciality programs required and never the Common Schooling coursework.
College students in these bridge packages might qualify for monetary help however might want to file for Federal Monetary Help.
Though the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) offers knowledge on nursing (displaying a 15% job progress fee between 2016-2026), it doesn’t present particular info on Nursing Informatics, per se. Nevertheless, BLS does cite a speedy 12% job improve for these working in pc and knowledge know-how. PayScale averages the annual wage for Nursing Informatics Specialists at $85,843 with salaries starting from $66,192-$116,290. Employment alternatives for these nursing specialists could also be present in hospitals, multi-facility well being methods, consulting companies, and authorities.
Greatest Medical Levels has used sure info in creating this rating: 1) how lengthy this system will take and the way a lot it might value per credit score hour (not together with different faculty charges assessed), 2) if the packages holds correct Division of Schooling permitted accreditation. Most nursing packages maintain Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling (CCNE) accreditation, Three) when relevant any rankings from U.S. Information and World Report and four) verifying the packages can be found on-line (together with hybrid program which can require a minimal and temporary on-campus requirement.) This rating lists the variety of nursing programs credit score hours required solely. The size of time this system would require will rely upon the variety of hours college students are capable of take per quarter or semester.
1. Grantham College
Grantham College (GU) supplies a 100% on-line RN to MSN bridge program which can permit Affiliate Diploma nurses to pursue a Grasp of Science in Nursing with an Nursing Informatics focus. Following completion of 24 credit score hours of BSN coursework (Word: the BSN shouldn’t be awarded with this program) and passing a competency examination, college students might then enroll in 36 hours of graduate nursing research informatics. The MSN diploma is accredited by the Accreditation Fee for Schooling in Nursing (ACEN).
Program Size: 60 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $265 (Undergraduate); $325 (Graduate)
Curriculum Snapshot: Fundamentals of Technical Writing, Pathophysiology, Well being Evaluation for Skilled Nursing, Mathematical Statistics, Nursing Management and Administration, Necessities of Nursing Informatics, Healthcare Methods, Nursing Analysis and Proof Based mostly Follow, Nursing Informatics Analysis Seminar, Nursing Informatics Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: Grantham College
2. Jacksonville College
Holding accreditation from the Fee on the Collegiate Nursing Schooling (CCNE), Jacksonville College (JU) has a web-based RN-MSN diploma with an informatics specialization. This system consists of 53-56 nursing credit and 60 core nursing credit score hours (however 30 credit score hours are awarded for a legitimate nursing license). Candidates are required, amongst different standards, to be a graduate of an accredited ADN or nursing diploma program with a Three.zero GPA, GRE scores of 290 or above (waived for a Three.zero GPA) and proof of profitable completion of undergraduate programs in statistics and bodily evaluation. U.S. Information and World Report ranks JU in its Greatest On-line Graduate Nursing Packages, Greatest Worth Faculties and Greatest Schools for Veterans.
Program Size: 141-155 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $315 (Florida Resident); $400 (Non-Resident); $795 (Graduate)
Curriculum Snapshot: Skilled Nursing, Proof-Based mostly Nursing, Nursing Evaluation for the Working towards Nurse, Nursing Management and Well being Care Coverage, Nursing Principle and Analysis, Info Techniques and Know-how for Improved Well being Care, Nursing Concept and Analysis, Nursing Management and Superior Roles, Healthcare Informatics as a Career, Regulation, Ethics and Public Points in Healthcare Informatics, Management in Informatics for Healthcare Organizations and Public Well being Technique, Knowledge Analytics and Impression on Affected person Care, and so on.
Program Web site: Jacksonville College
Three. Chamberlain College
This on-line program could possibly be thought-about a Three-1 nursing choice in Nursing Informatics permitting college students who’ve an Affiliate Diploma in Nursing (ADN) or a nursing diploma to acquire a BSN and MSN in a single program. The RN-BSN-MSN program is accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling (CCNE). Admission necessities embrace a GPA of two.zero, an lively and present nursing license. The legitimate nursing license mechanically awards 77 proficiency credit score hours in the direction of the diploma. A minimal of 24 credit score hours with a Three.zero GPA within the RN to BSN diploma be taken at Chamberlain College. U.S. Information and World Report ranks Chamberlain College as a Greatest On-line Graduate Nursing Program.
Program Size: 151 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $323
Curriculum Snapshot: Transitions in Skilled Nursing, Superior English Composition, Collaborative Healthcare, Statistical Reasoning for the Well being Sciences, RN Proof-Based mostly Apply, Theoretical Foundation for Superior
Nursing Follow, Fundamentals of Informatics, Superior Analysis Strategies – Proof-Based mostly Follow, Healthcare Coverage, and so forth.
Program Web site: Chamberlain College
four. Aspen College
Apen College (AU) offers an internet RN-MSN Bridge Program in Informatics which is CCNE accredited. Candidates for this program should maintain both a RN diploma or ADN from an accredited school or college, completion of a minimal of 50 credit score hours of Liberal Arts programs (college students missing these credit might take them whereas enrolled within the the RN-MSN Bridge Program),at the least one-year nursing expertise inside the previous 5 years, and unencumbered nursing licensure in both the U.S., Canada, or U.S. Territory. The varsity permits college students to pay $325 every month in the direction of their general tuition prices.
Program Size: 57 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $325
Curriculum Snapshot: Points and Developments in Skilled Nursing, Ideas and Theories in Nursing, Group Well being Nursing, Necessities of Nursing Analysis, Well being Evaluation, Well being Care Informatics, Well being Care Finance and Economics, Info Methods Strategic Planning, Superior Well being Care Informatics, Nursing Capstone, Nursing Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: Aspen College
5. Walden College
Walden College (WU) gives two on-line Nursing Informatics levels. Candidates with a nursing diploma or Affiliate Diploma in Nursing (ADN) or a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) diploma might apply the Nursing Informatics focus. This system is accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling (CCNE) and culminates with a Grasp of Science in Nursing (MSN). Switch credit from an accredited establishment are accepted and the college has a “Middle for Diploma Acceleration” which permits college students to earn credit score for work expertise, certifications, army service, and so on.
Program Size:79 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour:$395-$480
Curriculum Snapshot:Points and Developments in Nursing, Foundations of Nursing Analysis, Management Competencies in Nursing and Healthcare, Necessities of Proof-Based mostly Apply, Interprofessional Organizational and Techniques Management, Informatics in Nursing and Healthcare, Venture Administration: Healthcare Info Know-how, Supporting Workflow in Healthcare Techniques, Capstone Synthesis Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: Walden College
6. American Sentinel College
American Sentinel College (ASU) is accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling to supply an accelerated RN-BSN-MSN program with a MSN focus in Nursing Informatics. This system requires basic schooling programs, baccalaureate coursework in addition to graduate research. Nurses with a diploma or ADN are awarded credit score for his or her unique diploma and nursing license in the direction of the diploma. College students may additionally obtain credit score for army service, work experiences, and so forth. Admission requires a legitimate nursing license and educational data from an accredited nursing diploma or Affiliate Diploma in Nursing (ADN) instructional program. ASU has been acknowledged by U.S. Information and World Report for its on-line graduate nursing program.
Program Size: 117 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $410-$530
Curriculum Snapshot: Reflective Follow, Points and Developments, Heath Care Supply and High quality Outcomes, Creating Nursing Apply, Well being Evaluation, Analysis Design, Theoretical Foundations, Superior Pharmacology, Superior Pathophysiology, Medical and Administrative Techniques, Well being Care Informatics, Healthcare Knowledge Analytics, Healthcare Venture Administration, Info Safety and Privateness in Well being Care Environments, MSN Capstone, and so on.
Program Web site: American Sentinel College
7. Ferris State College
Ferris State College provides an accelerated RN to MSN monitor which has a focus in Nursing Informatics. This system is accessible to college students enrolled in FSU’s RN to BSN Completion Program. The varsity recommends, however doesn’t require, that college students within the MSN program have two-years medical expertise. College students are required to finish 24 bridge coursework and 37 common schooling credit earlier than getting into the MSN curriculum. The MSN program is very aggressive and solely accepts 20 college students in the course of the fall and spring semesters. U.S. Information and World Report consists of FSU in its Prime Public Faculties and Greatest On-line Graduate Nursing Packages.
Program Size: 97 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $421 (Undergraduate); $610 (Graduate)
Curriculum Snapshot: Skilled Nursing Talent Improvement, Transition into Skilled Nursing, Service Studying Challenge, Inhabitants Based mostly Well being Promotion, Statistics in Well being Care, Proof based mostly Well being Care, Management Position for Informatics Nurse Specialist, Enterprise Intelligence, Incident Response, Venture Administration, and so on.
Program Web site: Ferris College
eight. Capella College
The RN-MSN diploma in Nursing Informatics at Capella College is CCNE accredited. Capella College presents two tuition cost plans. The GuidedPath or FlexPlan choices which permits college students to decide on between paying per course or a flat tuition charge (extra info on these choices can be found on the varsity web site). Candidates should have accomplished 135 undergraduate credit score hours from an accredited establishment, submit official transcripts displaying a minimal Three.zero GPA, and proof of a legitimate, unrestricted nursing license. There isn’t a GRE or GMAT requirement for this program. Graduates are supplied with a free membership within the Healthcare Info Administration Techniques Society (HIMSS).
Program Size: 66 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $425
Curriculum Snapshot: Proof-Based mostly Follow for Affected person-Centered Care and Inhabitants Well being, High quality Enchancment of Interprofessional Care, Biopsychosocial Ideas for Superior Nursing Apply, Well being Care Regulation and Coverage, Economics and Choice Making in Well being Care, Rules of Nursing Informatics, Well being Informatics Methods Planning, Evaluation, Design, and Construct for Nursing, Knowledge Administration and Well being Care Know-how, Managing the Nursing Informatics Life Cycle, Introduction to Nursing Analysis, Ethics, and Know-how, Management for Nursing Follow, Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: Capella College
9. Thomas Edison State College
Thomas Edison State College has an internet RN to BSN/MSN diploma accredited by the CCNE. Candidates should present proof of an lively and legitimate nursing license, proof of malpractice insurance coverage, and submit official transcripts of commencement from an accredited establishment providing nursing diploma or Affiliate Diploma in Nursing. When relevant, switch credit for Common Schooling and decrease division nursing programs could also be awarded towards the BSN element. The masters portion of this system requires 36 credit score hours consisting of core necessities and specialty hours.
Program Size: 156 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $440 (New Jersey Resident); $538 (Non-Resident); $668 (Graduate Hours)
Curriculum Snapshot: Advancing Nursing Practices, Analysis in Nursing, Nursing Informatics: Ideas and Points, Management and Administration in Nursing, Well being Coverage, Public Well being Nursing, Superior Well being Evaluation, Well being Coverage, Proof-Based mostly Nursing Follow, Nursing Informatics: Techniques Life Cycle, Nursing Informatics: Databases and Information Administration, Nursing Informatics: Shopper Informatics and Communication Applied sciences, Nursing Informatics: Seminar and Practicum, and so on.
Program Size: Thomas Edison State College
10. Grand Canyon College
Grand Canyon College (GCU) offers an internet Masters in Well being Informatics designed for nurses holding a BSN. This system is accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling and admission requires completion of both the Graduate Document Examination (GRE) or Graduate Administration Admissions Check (GMAT). GCU participates within the State Authorization Reciprocity Agreements (SARA) and candidates ought to affirm the diploma is accepted by their particular person state licensing boards. The Masters of Well being Informatics diploma is obtainable by means of GCU’s School of Nursing and Well being Care Professions.
Program Size: 40 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $500
Curriculum Snapshot: Introduction to Superior Registered Nursing, Organizational Management and Informatics, Proof-Based mostly Venture, Well being Care Info Methods and Know-how, Well being Care Knowledge Administration, Digital Well being Data, Consumer Interface Design for Informatics, and so forth.
Program Web site: Grand Canyon Univesity
11. College of South Alabama
That is a web-based RN to MSN with a Nursing Informatics focus designed for the RN or ADN who has a BS or BA diploma in a non-nursing curriculum. The MSN is accredited by CCNE. Admission requires candidates be a US citizen or everlasting resident, maintain a present nursing license with no encumbrances and a minimum of two years nursing expertise. In most situations, practicum experiences are carried out within the scholar’s residence group. The College of South Alabama is ranked as a Nationwide College by U.S. Information and World Report.
Program Size: 53 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value: $594
Curriculum Snapshot: Proof Bases Apply & Informatics, Nursing in Group Methods, Well being Knowledge Safety and Pc, Healthcare Coverage and Finance, Introduction to Nursing Informatics, Nursing Administration Finance, Informatics and and High quality Care Enchancment, Organizational & Techniques Management, Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: College of South Alabama
12. West Coast College
Candidates to this CCNE accredited RN to MSN diploma with a specialization in Informatics should maintain a legitimate nursing license, be a graduate of an accredited ADN or diploma nursing establishment with a minimal Three.zero GPA. The varsity prefers one yr of nursing expertise however it’s not required. The RN-MSN diploma could also be accomplished in 24-months and requires 335 hours in a practicum expertise. Graduates are eligible to take a seat for the nursing informatics certification examination.
Program Size: 51 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $615
Curriculum Snapshot: Pathophysiology, Rules of Management for Healthcare Organizations, Statistics,
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Apply, Coverage, Group, and Financing of Well being Care, Introduction to Healthcare Informatics, Database Methods, Design and Informatics, Healthcare Informatics Practicum, Venture Administration in Healthcare Informatics, and so forth.
Program Web site:West Coast College
13. Nova Southeastern College
The RN to MSN on-line diploma at Nova Southeastern College is accredited by the CCNE. Nova Southeastern College has designed this bridge program for working nurses who’ve graduated from accredited ADN or nursing diploma packages. A Bachelor of Science in Nursing diploma is included on this program. This RN to MSN monitor requires 30 hours in Common Schooling coursework, 15 core MSN programs, and 21 informatics monitor coursework. U.S. Information and World Report ranks Nova Southeastern College Florida as a Greatest On-line Graduate Nursing Packages.
Program Size: 96 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $685
Curriculum Snapshot: Transition to Baccalaureate Nursing Schooling, Well being Evaluation, Pathophysiology, Transition to Graduate Research, Proof and Apply, Coverage and Management, Genetic Ideas, and so forth.
Program Web site: Nova Southeastern College-Florida
14. Western Governors College-Tennessee
The Western Governors College (WGU) is, maybe, one of the distinctive on-line college out there and is ranked within the prime 10 of U.S. Information and World Report’s Most Revolutionary Faculty. WGU provides an internet RN-MSN Nursing Informatics program and accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling (CCNE). College students set their very own instructional tempo and coursework is measured in Competency Models (CUs). offers extra detailed info by way of its Program Guidebook for this diploma. Relatively than pay tuition based mostly on credit score hours or Competency Models, college students are charged a flat tuition fee each six months. Admission to the Nursing Informatics diploma program requires a RN or ADN diploma, submit a legal background examine, legitimate and unrestricted nursing license, and submit a resume displaying the applicant is presently working as an RN.
Program Size: TBD
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $Three,225 per 6-month time period
Curriculum Snapshot: Informatics System Evaluation and Design, Knowledge Modeling and Database Administration Techniques, Nursing Informatics Area Expertise, Foundations in Nursing Informatics, Knowledge Science and Analytics, Nursing Informatics Capstone, and so on.
Program Web site: Western Governors College-Tennessee
15. Nebraska Methodist School
This nursing informatics diploma at Nebraska Methodist College (NMU) is obtainable on-line and could also be accomplished inside 30 months. There isn’t any GRE requirement for admission; however, NMC does require both a RN diploma or ADN from an accredited establishment, a GPA of three.zero or higher, present RN license. Following completion of the bridge programs, the scholar’s GPA can be reviewed to confirm a Three.zero GPA (college students with a decrease GPA will probably be reviewed on a person foundation). This system holds accreditation from CCNE and U.S. Information and World Report ranks NMC as one of many Greatest Nursing Faculties: Grasp’s diploma.
Program Size: 54 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $565 ($308 Bridge Programs Per Credit score Hour)
Curriculum Snapshot: Bridge Programs: Nursing Evaluation for RNs, Introduction to Statistics, Group Well being Nursing, Collaborative Nursing in a International Society; Superior Nursing Roles and Phenomena, Important Appraisal of Information for Apply, Shopper Well being Informatics, Introduction to Healthcare Informatics, Capstone Tasks, Practicum in Nursing Informatics, and so forth.
Program Web site: Nebraska Methodist College
16. Wilkes College
Wilkes College’s (WU) on-line RN to MSN has a Nursing Informatics focus which is accredited by the CCNE. This system is created for working nurses with an ADN diploma. Bridge and core graduate programs are required earlier than enrolling within the focus. Different admission standards requires candidates have a present nursing license, minimal of one-year medical nursing expertise, and so forth. WU has ceaselessly been ranked as a Greatest Schools for Veterans and Greatest Worth Faculties by U.S. Information and World Report. A BSN diploma shouldn’t be included within the RN to MSN program.
Program Size: 49 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $700
Curriculum Snapshot: Superior Well being Evaluation, Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Science, Superior Nursing Analysis, Well being Coverage and Politics for Advancing Nursing Follow, Foundations of Nursing Informatics,Knowledge Administration in Healthcare, Nursing Informatics Management in Healthcare Methods and Venture Designs, Nursing Informatics Practicum, and so on.
Program Web site: Wilkes College
17. Drexel College
Drexel College provides a web-based accelerated RN-MSN program designed for nurses who’ve a BSN or a bachelor’s diploma aside from in nursing. Admissions requires a legitimate nursing license, a Three.zero GPA, official transcripts, and so on. This system is accredited by the Fee on Collegiate Nursing Schooling and could also be accomplished in Three years. Drexel College is acknowledged in U.S. Information and World Report’s Greatest On-line Graduate Nursing Packages, Greatest Worth Faculty, Most Revolutionary and Greatest Schools for Veterans.
Program Size: 63 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $775
Curriculum Snapshot: Crucial Points in Nursing, Genetics and Genomics: Software to Nursing Apply, Inhabitants Well being: Native and International, Confronting Points in Modern Well being Care Environments, Analysis Strategies and Biostatistics, Info, Innovation & Know-how in Superior Nursing Apply, Knowledge Evaluation for Choice-Making in Well being Care Administration, Operations Administration in Modern Healthcare Organizations, and so on.
Program Web site: Drexel College
18. Allen School
This program is right for nurses who maintain a bachelor’s diploma in a area aside from nursing. The grasp’s program has a focus in Management in Well being Info Know-how (LHIT) and requires a legitimate and present nursing license (confirm with the varsity that your state license qualifies), conditions in statistics, nursing analysis, and group well being (may be taken at Allen School). The school has CCNE accreditation for its nursing packages and the LHIT focus is a cooperative settlement between Allen School and College of Minnesota.
Program Size: 55 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $837
Curriculum Snapshot: Management for Superior Nursing,Coverage, Group, and Financing of Well being Care, Proof Based mostly Apply, Medical Enrichment: Informatics, Utilized Well being Care Databases: Database Rules and Knowledge Analysis, Interdisciplinary Healthcare Informatics, Shopper Well being Info, Inhabitants Well being Informatics, and so forth.
Program Web site: Allen School
19. College of Pittsburgh
The College of Pittsburgh has an internet RN-MSN diploma program in Nursing Informatics for college kids who maintain a diploma or ADN in nursing. Admission to this program requires candidates to have a Three.zero GPA from an accredited nursing program, present nursing license, GRE scores, a statistics course taken inside the previous 10 years (grade of “B” or higher), and completion of prerequisite coursework. As much as 60 credit score hours in prerequisite Common Schooling and nursing programs could also be transferred.
Program Size: 105.5 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $1090
Curriculum Snapshot: Graduate Faculty Orientation, Statistics for Proof-Based mostly Follow, Database Administration, Analysis for Proof-Based mostly Follow, Medical Info Techniques, Healthcare High quality, Finance and Economics for Healthcare Leaders, Nursing Informatics Practicum, and so forth.
Program Web site: College of Pittsburgh
20. Holy Names College
Holy Names College provides a hybrid ADN (RN) to MSN diploma in Nursing Informatics which can be accomplished in two to 3 years depending on earlier schooling. This program is accredited by the CCNE and consists of bridge programs to satisfy undergraduate necessities. There are three prerequisite programs required in statistics, English, and Epidemiology. As a hybrid program, there are some courses which require in-person attendance; nevertheless, medical or practicum experiences are organized near the scholar’s residence space.
Program Size: 39-54 Credit score Hours
Estimated Tuition Value Per Credit score Hour: $1054
Curriculum Snapshot: Nursing Analysis, Management and Administration in Nursing, Nursing Informatics, Well being Regulation & Ethics, Healthcare Economics, Capston, Organizational Concept, Knowledge Administration in Healthcare, Well being Info Know-how, Nursing Informatics Ideas and Follow, Know-how and Innovation, and so on.