News

24 Best Bachelor’s Degrees in Legal Studies

24 Best Bachelor's Degrees in Legal Studies

If you have an interest in the authorized subject, then pursuing a Bachelor’s Diploma in Authorized Research could possibly be the first step in an thrilling profession. This degree program can prepare you for many totally different profession options, including turning into a paralegal, working as a legal assistant, and even happening to attend regulation faculty. 

Earning a Bachelor’s Diploma in Legal Research prepares you for well-paying careers; based on PayScale, graduates of this diploma make a mean salary of $60,000. Paralegals earn a mean of $45,000 annually, whereas legal assistants make about $40,000 annually. The 24 Greatest Bachelor’s Levels in Authorized Studies will help you to pursue this exciting career. 

Finding the best authorized research degree will partially depend on your profession plans. For those who’re completing this degree to develop into a paralegal, then it would be best to look for a degree that’s accredited by the American Bar Association. You also needs to think about whether a program presents a specialization within the specific area of regulation that pursuits you. When you plan to go to regulation faculty, a Bachelor’s Degree in Authorized Research may be a pure selection. Whereas regulation faculties don’t require this diploma for admission, the background and foundation info that this degree supplies can depart you well-prepared for the challenges of regulation faculty. Many of those diploma packages supply or require that students full internships, which may present priceless expertise to organize you on your profession or additional education. 

Selection Standards

Greatest Value Faculties publishes school diploma rankings with the assumption of how one’s greater schooling must be, each, reasonably priced and an investment of continued worth for the students who pursue them. The employees of BVS collects knowledge from respected sources to be able to calculate Internet Worth and the brief and long-term worth of each ranked diploma. Collected knowledge is simplified into weighted classes earlier than scoring after which scaled by means of a BVS Rating as much as 100. The weighted classes are:

  • Degree Investment Return (25%)
  • Scholar & Alumni Evaluation (25%)
  • Value Worth (25%)
  • Matriculation (10%) 
  • Educational Success (15%) 

No matter what degree you determine on, we hope our research and help has made the choice process simpler. There are quite a few assets BVS makes use of to gather info on levels, and we encourage you to verify them out for yourself! 

Listed here are the 24 greatest Bachelor’s Levels in Authorized Research for 2020!

Contents

1. College of California Berkeley – Berkeley, CA

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies

Web site

The University of California Berkeley’s Bachelor of Science in Legal Research is a liberal arts diploma that is designed to offer students with a comprehensive understanding of the authorized course of. Throughout this diploma, students will study authorized concepts and legal establishments to raised perceive how the regulation works. College students take courses in subjects resembling American legal historical past, philosophy of regulation, property regulation, and the legal justice course of. Whereas this degree is not particularly created to organize college students for regulation faculty, many college students who intend to go to regulation faculty do choose this main. 

Outstanding college students on this program have the chance to hitch the Legal Research Honors Program as seniors. College students enrolled in the Honors Program can conduct analysis on a subject of their interest and present their work on the Authorized Studies Undergraduate Research Conference in the spring. College students who wish to apply to the Honors Program should have an general UCB GPA of 3.5 or larger, and their Legal Studies Main GPA should even be at the very least three.5. 

Internet Worth: $18,178

Score: 100

2. College of Central Florida – Orlando, FL

Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research

Website

On the College of Central Florida, undergraduates can pursue a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research. The BA requires college students to take two semesters of a overseas language, while the BS requires only two years of overseas language studies at the high school degree. Both packages are available totally online, making them perfect for college kids who stay off-campus or do not wish to relocate to campus for the varsity. 

The web BA and BS degrees in authorized research have been recognized by the U.S. Information & World Report’s 2019 Greatest Online Bachelor’s Degree Packages and Greatest Online Bachelor’s Diploma Packages for Veterans rankings. In addition to the BA and BS degrees, UCF presents a minor in authorized studies in addition to undergraduate certificates in Particular person Liberties, Litigation and Advocacy, Spanish for the Authorized World, and Urban Actual Property Improvement. 

Internet Worth: $15,341

Rating: 92.4

three. Ball State University – Muncie, IN

Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies

Website

Ball State College presents a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies. While there are 1,000 paralegal education schemes in the USA, this system at Ball State is certainly one of lower than 300 such packages which are accepted by the American Bar Association. Throughout this degree program, college students take courses across many apply areas akin to constitutional regulation, administrative regulation, enterprise regulation, and civil and legal litigation. Students must determine to concentrate on either Public Regulation or Business Regulation and can complete an internship working with attorneys and paralegals. 

These degrees are appropriate for college kids contemplating attending regulation faculty, as they provide a complete foundation in regulation. Legal Studies majors go on to carry many various careers, together with working as investigators, attorneys, courtroom clerks, and coverage developers. The Division of Political Science provides out scholarships and awards to students in recognition of their educational success. As well as, program graduates go on to attend prestigious regulation faculties, akin to Michigan State, Indiana University, and Notre Dame.

Internet Worth: $13,535

Score: 91.7

Four. College of Pittsburgh – Pittsburgh, PA

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Research

Website

College students can pursue a Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. Throughout this 120-credit-hour program, students will take programs corresponding to Society and the Regulation, Freedom of Speech and the Press, Human Rights in World History, American Constitutional Regulation, and Deviance and Social Management. This program qualifies students to pursue graduate work in legal research, business, regulation, and the administration of justice. Program graduates go on to work in lots of fields, similar to social providers, insurance coverage, and social safety. 

The University of Pittsburgh provides an internship guarantee; any college students who take the college’s Internship Prep Program and full all associated necessities are assured to seek out placement in a minimum of one internship or an experiential studying alternative while an undergraduate. Students are additionally encouraged to discover the various research abroad alternatives obtainable, together with semester-long and one-, three-, or five-week packages. 

Internet Worth: $22,848

Score: 91.2

5. College of West Florida – Pensacola, FL

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Research

Website

The College of West Florida’s Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies is especially well-suited for college kids who want to attend regulation faculty or who hope to work as a paralegal or office administrator in the authorized career. Throughout this program, college students acquire worthwhile expertise for these profession choices, akin to persuasive writing, oral advocacy, and moral consciousness. Small class sizes and gifted school ensure college students obtain a top quality schooling, and program individuals can participate in internships, be a part of scholar organizations, and conduct research. 

The Legal Research Program hosts a number of annual occasions. This system hosts a panel of legal professionals and alumni each Fall who discuss their careers and meet college students in the legal area. Within the Spring, this system hosts a UWF Spring Regulation Faculty Forum where attendees can study and get advice on applying to regulation faculties. Further events embrace a trip to the Supreme Courtroom, regulation faculty tours, an LSAT prep course, and an Argo Invitational Mock Trial Event. 

Internet Worth: $11,550

Score: 91.1

6. Washburn University – Topeka, KS

Bachelor of Legal Research

Website

Washburn College’s Bachelor of Authorized Research is a four-year 120-hour program. Students must earn a grade of a “C” or better of their university and common schooling requirements. Throughout this program, students will take courses comparable to Legal Analysis, Private Damage Regulation, Family Regulation, Philosophy of Regulation, and Know-how & Society. 

Washburn University consists of 5 totally different faculties, together with the Faculty of Regulation. The university fees per-credit tuition, and college students from Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, or Texas additionally pay the decreased Kansas in-state scholar tuition. At Washburn, college students can choose from over 200 programs, and with 71% of full-time school holding a doctorate or terminal diploma, students obtain a top quality schooling from highly-qualified school. Over 1,000 college students take part in internships annually, and some majors require students to complete internships to graduate. 

Internet Worth: $13,170

Score: 87.4

7. Gannon University – Erie, PA

Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Research

Web site

College students at Gannon College can pursue a Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies. This diploma prepares college students to pursue regulation and related jobs, paralegal positions, or regulation faculty. During the program, college students obtain training and job placement assistance and now have the opportunity to take part in internships. The curriculum focuses on legal specialty programs that provide expertise coaching, equipping college students with the talents that many employers worth. 

Gannon University, a Catholic, Diocesan university, was based in 1925. More than three,200 undergraduate and 1,000 graduate students attend the university. Gannon College presents a 13:1 student-to-faculty ratio to facilitate plenty of scholar help, and students can even choose to take part in the college’s greater than 140 clubs and organizations. Gannon college students are awarded over $37 million in monetary assist annually, and the college provides 22 totally different varsity sports activities teams. 

Internet Worth: $21,793

Rating: 85.5

eight. Nova Southeastern University – Fort Lauderdale, FL

Bachelor of Science in Legal Research

Website

At Nova Southeastern College, students can pursue a Bachelor of Science in Legal Research with a pre-law or international regulation monitor focus. This interdisciplinary major features a give attention to communication, history, philosophy, political science, and literature, giving students a comprehensive understanding of the regulation. Program graduates are prepared to carry careers in politics, business, trade, public affairs, and public service, and while many graduates go on to regulation faculty, different graduates pursue packages in nonprofit operations, politics, management, and more. 

College students who wish to diversify their expertise might choose legal research, historical past, international regulation, philosophy, or different minors. If college students plan to pursue a grasp’s or doctoral diploma that’s associated to the sector, NSU’s Twin Admission Program may also help them to organize for that superior diploma. With the Dual Admission Program, undergraduates enrolled at NSU’s School of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences can obtain early acceptance into considered one of NSU’s graduate and professional degree packages. 

Internet Worth: $26,740

Score: 83.eight

9. Dominican College – River Forest, IL

Bachelor of Professional Research in Authorized Studies

Web site

Dominican College’s Bachelor of Skilled Research in Legal Research is an accelerated interdisciplinary major. Students can select as much as two concentrations in fields similar to paralegal studies, social justice, and incapacity advocacy, or students may even design their concentrations. Advisors assist college students to tailor their program to concentrate on their skilled objectives, and students study helpful expertise resembling the way to analysis issues, analyze knowledge, write, and clear up real-world issues. 

One of many defining features of this diploma program is that it can be taken completely online, in the classroom, or a mixture of delivery strategies. The program is designed with the scheduling flexibility wants of the working skilled in mind. Students can switch school credit score toward the degree and may earn credit score for the talents they’ve already gained by means of life experiences, permitting them to progress via the degree extra quickly. The program is delivered in an accelerated eight-week year-round format in order that college students can full the program in approximately 20 months. 

Internet Worth: $18,250

Score: 83.7

10. Florida Gulf Coast College – Fort Myers, FL

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research

Web site

At Florida Gulf Coast University, students can pursue a Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies that prepares them for regulation faculty or to pursue careers in law-related professions, resembling authorized aiding or as a paralegal. All through this system, college students develop essential considering and writing and analysis expertise which might be useful in almost any career. By taking elective programs, college students can give attention to specific subjects comparable to wills, actual property, family regulation, and trusts and estates. 

This program is out there both on-campus and in a distance studying format online, and college students full internships that permit college students to combine concept and follow in a real-world setting. College students who wish to take the Certified Legal Assistant’s Exam can be well-prepared by this program. Program graduates have additionally gone on to pursue regulation faculty and employment in regulation companies, government workplaces, and private businesses. 

Internet Worth: $13,456

Score: 83.5

11. Webster University – St. Louis, MO

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Studies

Web site

Webster College’s Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies is the only American Bar Affiliation-approved program in St. Louis. The BALS provides a broad schooling that prepares students who want to enter the legal career. This schooling focuses on each the theoretical and sensible regulation and consists of programs corresponding to Civil Litigation, Computerized Legal Research, Contract Regulation Apply, Actual Estate Regulation Follow, and more. 

Students can full courses each online and in the classroom, and have the option to pursue one, to four-week-long summer time abroad packages within the Netherlands. Webster professors are working judges and attorneys, which means they will supply a complete schooling that encompasses the newest authorized tendencies and expectations. School come from assorted backgrounds and embrace legal prosecutors, United States attorneys, intellectual property legal professionals, and even judges from the Missouri Courtroom of Appeals. 

Internet Worth: $23,835

Rating: 83.4

12. College of Maryland – Largo, MD

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research

Website

On the College of Maryland, college students can acquire a Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research online. Whereas all courses can be found online, some are provided as hybrid models, with college students learning partially online and partially on campus. UMD’s BSLS helps to organize students for regulation faculty or careers within the authorized subject, reminiscent of in legal research, writing, or advocacy. The college recommends that candidates have skilled expertise in a regulation agency or courtroom since this experience can contribute to their success as college students. 

UMUC is the most important on-line public university within the country and has been offering high quality schooling to college students for over 70 years. The university gives greater than 90 packages and specializations in undergraduate and graduate fields. UMUC supplies a streamlined admissions process that doesn’t require SAT or GRE scores, and the university’s a number of begin dates annually imply that college students do not have to attend to start their schooling. The university’s on-line courses are accessible anyplace, and typically, almost every textbook is offered on-line without charge to college students. 

Internet Worth: $15,256

Score: 82.9

13. Tulane College – New Orleans, LA

Bachelor of Arts in Common Legal Research

Web site

The University of Tulane’s Bachelor of Arts in Common Legal Studies is obtainable both on-campus and in an on-campus/on-line combination format. This program equips college students to work as paralegals or to pursue a complicated authorized diploma. Students obtain an schooling from school who’re working towards attorneys or paralegals and luxuriate in flexible course schedules with courses provided on both nights and evenings. The American Bar Affiliation’s Standing Committee on Paralegals has authorised this program since 1981. 

The Bachelor of Arts in Basic Authorized Research is a part of the Tulane Faculty of Professional Development, which supplies instructional opportunities for professionals. College students enrolled via Tulane SoPA can entry undergraduate and graduate degrees relevant to their career objectives. Courses are provided on convenient schedules, and lots of packages and programs are available online. As a military-friendly faculty, SoPA can supply elective credits to lively obligation army, veterans, and even coaching academy graduates. 

Internet Worth: $33,886

Score: 82.eight

14. University of La Verne – La Verne, CA

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research

Website

The College of La Verne’s Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies is authorised by the American Bar Affiliation and accepts new students each semester. The authorized research courses meet once every week in the course of the evenings. College students have access to the University of La Verne School Regulation Library within the Metropolis of Ontario, as well as the College of La Verne Wilson Library, situated on Central Campus. Students are required to complete an internship in a authorized setting, comparable to within a regulation agency, company authorized division, or governmental office. 

Founded in 1891, La Verne provides 55 undergraduate packages in addition to master’s and doctoral degrees, as well as credential packages. La Verne educates over eight,000 conventional and adult learners. Forty-four % of the students are first-generation school students, and over 70% of scholars on the college obtain financial assist. The university’s 15:1 student-to-faculty ratio means school can present college students with individualized feedback, making for quality schooling. 

Internet Worth: $27,718

Rating: 82.4

15. Wilmington College – New Citadel, DE

Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies

Website

Wilmington College offers a Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies equips college students for a number of careers, including working as paralegals, courtroom clerks, and claims analysts. College students who wish to attend regulation faculty and who graduate from this diploma program could also be admitted to the Delaware Regulation Faculty by way of an categorical admission. College students can even switch course credit or an affiliate degree to graduate from this program quicker, and all college students will full internships with local regulation companies and organizations for beneficial real-world expertise. 

WilmU was based in 1968 and educates about 18,000 students annually. The college provides versatile studying options to go well with every scholar, including day, evening, and weekend courses. Most courses are provided in weekend modular, seven-week, and 15-week formats. WilmU additionally provides Fusion courses which blend both on-line and face-to-face learning for increased scheduling flexibility. All college students pay in-state tuition regardless of the place they stay, and lots of of these diploma packages are career-focused, creating the talents and information that employers search for in job candidates. 

Internet Worth: $14,955

Rating: 80.three

16. Stevenson University – Owings Mills, MD

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research

Web site

Stevenson College’s Bachelor of Science in Legal Research teaches college students both the idea and follow of regulation. All the program school have practiced regulation or served as judges, and this program was the primary within the state to be permitted by the American Bar Association. By the second yr of the program, students work as authorized assistants or paralegals, gaining useful work expertise that prepares them properly for his or her careers. Students also have the chance to take part within the university’s Mock Trial program, which competes towards teams from the mid-Atlantic area. 

Stevenson designed the BSLS to organize students for employment or regulation faculty, and 100% of qualified applicants from this program are accepted into regulation faculty. College students can even choose to minor in Actual Property to organize for a real property profession. Pre-law advisors work with college students throughout their schooling, making certain that they’re well-prepared for the demands of regulation faculty. Program graduates go on to carry jobs in quite a lot of fields, including employment regulation, sports activities regulation, youngster and household regulation, and authorized research and writing. 

Internet Worth: $eight,zero40

Rating: 79.4

17. St. John’s College – Queens, NY

Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies

Web site

College students who pursue a Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies at St. John’s University are ready for regulation faculty, graduate faculty, or entry-level employment in law-related fields. Program graduates have gained acceptance at major regulation faculties including Georgetown, NYU, George Washington, Tempo, Fordham, and extra. Whereas enrolled at St. John’s, students have also held internships in city, state, and federal politicians’ workplaces, in federal and state courts, and at the Authorized Help Society. 

The college is house to over 180 scholar clubs and organizations, together with the Legal Society, the Legal Justice Association, and the School of Skilled Studies Honor Society. Over 21,000 students attend St. John’s annually, and the university’s alumni network is 184,000 robust. This Catholic and Vincentian college was founded in 1870 and provides more than 100 undergraduate packages at the moment. St. John’s can also be house to 17 NCAA Division I athletic teams. 

Internet Worth: $31,845

Rating: 76.6

18. University of Wisconsin-Madison – Madison, WI

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Studies

Website

The College of Wisconsin-Madison’s Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies focuses on both the idea and operation of regulation. This schooling examines regulation as a social phenomenon, and students will study its evolution and its perform. As a result of this system focuses extra on the broad questions of regulation, fairly than on targeted coaching for the regulation career, it isn’t meant to serve as a regulation faculty preparation diploma. Nevertheless, pre-law students can end this BALS prior to regulation faculty. 

Over 44,000 students attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where they will choose from more than 200 undergraduate majors and over 250 grasp’s, doctoral, and professional packages. Students obtain a top quality schooling from more than 2,000 professional school. In 2015, Madison was ranked as the highest soccer city in the nation by the NCAA, and over 80,000 followers pack the Camp Randall Stadium to cheer on the college’s 23 Huge Ten varsity groups.

Internet Worth: $6,818

Score: 75.6

19. University of Miami – Miami, FL

Bachelor of Science in Enterprise Administration with a serious space of specialization in legal research

Website

College students fascinated by pursuing fields including danger administration, human assets, finance and accounting, and compliance can pursue a Bachelor of Science in Enterprise Administration with a serious space of specialization in authorized studies. This degree, provided by the College of Miami, may also serve as a foundation for college kids who wish to research regulation. College students will take programs comparable to Enterprise Analytics, Corporate Regulation, Intellectual Property Regulation, Regulation of Entrepreneurship, and Well being Care Regulation and Ethics. 

Founded in 1925, the College of Miami is a serious analysis university with an enrollment of over 17,000 college students. The university gives over 180 majors and packages by way of its 11 faculties and schools. The University of Miami has a vibrant campus life, and college students can take part in 40 service organizations and over 270 clubs. The university additionally has a student-operated newspaper, a radio station, and lots of fraternities and sororities. 

Internet Worth: $42,204

Rating: 74.7

20. College of Alaska Anchorage – Anchorage, AK

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Research

Website

The University of Alaska Anchorage presents a Bachelor of Arts in Legal Studies offers a broad schooling in regulation and policy. Program graduates are prepared for careers in a number of legal service settings, including in federal and state businesses, personal regulation workplaces, and company legal departments. The program can also be appropriate for college kids who plan to pursue graduate packages in regulation. During this program, students will take courses comparable to Development Regulation, Boundary Regulation, and Constitutional Regulation. To graduate, college students have to earn a C or greater in every authorized research core course or elective. 

UAA presents more than 100 undergraduate and graduate degree packages across its seven faculties and schools. The university’s Group and Technical School additionally provides an Apprenticeship in Alaska program by means of which students achieve training and expertise in fields reminiscent of automotive technologies, pc networking, diesel technologies, and culinary and hospitality providers. The campus is residence to many scholar clubs and organizations, an lively arts and leisure culture, and six fraternities and sororities. 

Internet Worth: $12,543

Rating: 72.three

21. Morehead State College – Morehead, KY

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Research

Website

Morehead State College’s Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Research prepares students to right away enter the authorized subject beneath the supervision of an lawyer after graduating. Morehead BALS college students contribute to group tasks similar to conducting mock trials with elementary, middle, and highschool college students, or staffing professional se divorce clinics. College students have opportunities to work with precise shoppers and luxuriate in small class sizes that contribute to talent improvement. From 2010 to 2015, each program graduate who utilized to regulation faculty was accepted to a minimum of one faculty. 

Founded in 1887, Morehead State University is a public university that gives undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral packages. College students can choose from 142 undergraduate and 69 graduate packages provided across four faculties and schools. Courses average just 19 students in measurement, and 70% of full-time school maintain doctoral levels in their fields. Almost 94% of undergraduates obtain financial help. Morehead State University is house to more than 68,000 alumni. 

Internet Worth: $12,136

Rating: 71.9

22. University of Southern Mississippi – Hattiesburg, MS

Bachelor of Arts in Legal Studies

Website

The College of Southern Mississippi provides a Bachelor of Arts in Authorized Studies with concentrations in pre-law or paralegal studies. College students study from professors who are all legal professionals, and the program covers all areas of regulation. The pre-law concentration is accessible on the Hattiesburg campus, while the paralegal research concentration is offered each on the Hattiesburg and the Gulf Park campuses. Program graduates go on to work as paralegals, legal professionals, and as directors in greater schooling. 

Based in 1910, the University of Southern Mississippi is a Carnegie R1 research institution. The university presents undergraduate and graduate-level diploma packages as well as 30 research overseas opportunities. The scholar body represents 71 nations, and annually, college students participate in about 100,000 volunteer service hours. The College of Southern Mississippi provides 17 Division I sports groups. 

Internet Worth: $12,506

Score: 71.9

23. Submit College – Waterbury, CT

Bachelor of Science in Authorized Studies

Web site

Publish College’s Bachelor of Science in Authorized Research presents college students a comprehensive schooling in subjects comparable to real estate closings, civil litigation, family regulation, environmental regulation, and more. College students study from school who’re training attorneys and achieve invaluable one-on-one help. Whereas this program does not require that students full internships, many internship alternatives are available. 

Submit University offers a BSLS either on-campus and online, and versatile day, evening, and weekend programs permit college students to pursue an schooling around their schedule. Since being founded in 1890, Submit University has advanced to embody students’ needs, and immediately, many courses are provided solely online or in hybrid codecs. In 2019, the U.S. News & World Report included Publish University in its Greatest Online Graduate Business and Schooling Packages and Greatest On-line Graduate Schooling Packages for Veterans rankings. 

Internet Worth: $18,220

Rating: 68.three

24. West Virginia University at Parkersburg – Parkersburg, WV

Bachelor of Applied Science in Legal Research

Website

West Virginia University at Parkersburg provides a Bachelor of Utilized Science in Legal Studies that prepares students to develop a legal career or to take the Licensed Paralegal Exam. During this program, students full a capstone undertaking throughout which they good their resume and prepare a portfolio. Students take programs comparable to Civil Procedures, Legal Research and Writing, and Legal Professional Improvement. 

WVU Parkersburg was based in 1961 and is a group and technical school affiliated with West Virginia College. College students full their first one or two years of research at WVU Parkersburg and should then switch on to WVU the place they full their four-year packages. Whereas at WVU Parkersburg, college students can take part in quite a lot of clubs and organizations, including the Collegiate 4-H Club, Breakthrough Campus Ministries, Felony Justice Organization, and Authorized Studies Society. 

Internet Worth: $6,910

Score: 67.eight