In Risen, a 2016 film meant for an evangelical market, the Roman figures within the Ardour story characterize a skeptical world-weariness acquainted to the fashionable world. Joseph Fiennes as tribune Clavius and Peter Firth a Pontius Pilate
Risen is the product of a sub-industry whose main supply of success is in providing pious pablum for a complacent and undiscriminating Christian market (although, to be truthful, this market just isn’t made up solely of complacent and undiscriminating viewers, nor are complacency and a scarcity of discrimination traits only of Christian moviegoers), yet throughout the film there’s an specific try and problem the certitudes of its core viewers. At occasions, Risen does indeed resemble an open-ended investigation. This is unsurprising, give how intently the conversion narrative here has been patterned after the police procedural in its try and deliver concerning the resolution of ambiguities. At different occasions, nevertheless, the movie is more clearly a work of advocacy, with the viewer by no means in any genuine doubt concerning the absolute factuality of Christ’s resurrection – the film’s title, in any case, just isn’t so much a spoiler as it’s a signal of reassurance to the standard Affirm shopper that the difficulty of Christ’s resurrection won’t be subject to any lasting critique.
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Each dramatic re-enactment of the Passion displays the tenor of its occasions, and Sony Affirm’s 2016 film Risen is not any exception, projecting onto the story from first-century Roman Judaea the cultural issues of the USA in the early twenty-first century. The movie tells the story of Jesus’s dying and resurrection, however it is extremely a lot an imaginative product of up to date America. Ours is an period by which wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations have appeared almost fixed; by which confidence in the credibility of mainstream Christianity has been steadily eroding; and by which probably the most persistently widespread type of televised leisure has been the police procedural. In response to a synopsis of the plot included in the manufacturing’s press-kit,
RISEN is an epic biblical story of Jesus’ crucifixion and the weeks following, via the eyes of the unbelieving Clavius (Joseph Fiennes), a high-ranking Roman army officer. Clavius and his aide Lucius (Tom Felton) are assigned by Pontius Pilate to ensure that Jesus’ radical followers can’t steal his physique and claim a resurrection. Within days, nevertheless, the body is lacking, placing Clavius on a mission to seek out it to disprove the rumors of a risen Messiah and to stop an rebellion in Jerusalem.
Overseas, modern People face a gentle supply of hostilities that evidently cannot be stanched, whereas at house, conventional spiritual beliefs appear unequal to the anxieties of the present day. In the meantime, the fascination with scientific detective work as depicted on TV has given rise to a widespread belief in the “CSI Effect,” a phenomenon that “incorrectly depicts forensic science as this juggernaut of infallibility.”Risen builds on these modern cultural developments in its presentation of the ancient story, offering a forensic drama with a skeptical investigator set within the midst of a seemingly endless conflict in the Mideast (although the causes of up to date conflicts in the Mideast don’t get any real consideration). But above all, Risen represents an essential improvement of the faith-based movie – one partaking brazenly with issues of doubt – which demonstrates how this specific style has matured beyond its personal pronounced (and profitable) tendency towards banality and oversimplification. Whether or not Risen in reality escapes from that tendency remains to be seen, because it has not made much of an inroad into the mainstream, however it has maybe laid the groundwork for films but to return from the evangelical industry.
To make certain, Risen is a Christian movie, or maybe it’s higher to say, a film produced for a certain Christian viewers within a sure Christian cultural context. How that audience and its context have been recognized and marketed to in recent times is value foregrounding: here we should always look extra intently at Affirm, the Sony subsidiary that produced Risen. Based on the corporate’s online Mission Statement, Affirm is[d]edicated to producing, acquiring, advertising and distributing movies which encourage, uplift, and entertain audiences . . . Sony Footage launched AFFIRM Movies in 2007 to satisfy the growing demands from audiences on the lookout for quality, mainstream films that mirror their religious beliefs and values. . . . AFFIRM Films acquires faith-based and inspirational content material throughout a variety of genres and budgets for the varied international distribution platforms at [Sony] together with theatrical, tv, and home leisure.
There are some things value extrapolating here. To begin with, observe that Affirm got here into being in the mid-2000s, as did a number of different production corporations geared towards this demographic, a improvement virtually solely owing to the exceptional success of Mel Gibson’s The Ardour of the Christ. Hollywood insiders had been initially uncertain about Gibson’s venture, but when Passion remodeled $600 million in field office receipts (versus the $30 million it had value to supply), executives at all the main studios concluded that perhaps they might find a method to serve both God and Mammon. Consequently, corporations like Affirm, Pure Flix, and others came into being, geared towards an American evangelical niche out there that was in search of entertainment products that these in the industry call the “faith-and-family” category. Viewers in this demographic see themselves as combatants in a tradition conflict; convinced that mainstream tradition is implacably opposed to their spiritual convictions, they’re an keen viewers for films that cater to, validate, and indeed affirm “their religious beliefs and values.”
There’s nothing particularly new about films being produced from a Christian perspective, in fact – one thinks of the various Bible-based epics of the 1950s – however a principal difference between films like The Robe and Quo Vadis and faith-based features made by Affirm and different corporations like Heaven Is For Real, God’s Not Lifeless, The Struggle Room, and God’s Not Lifeless 2 is the matter of scale. Certainly, in the twenty-first century, huge budgets are likely to work towards films that espouse values of this type, a minimum of for the U.S. market. Tim Stanley reported on this phenomenon for the Telegraph lately in an article titled “Has Hollywood Lastly Discovered God?” As he writes,
Christian films are one of the very few genres of movie that folks go to with the intention of enjoying them whether or not they objectively suck or not. And their flaws truly affirm that they’re not slick Hollywood products from the liberal secure. Identical to Donald Trump’s gaffes prove he’s no PC shill, so dangerous appearing in Christian films proves that they’re not being cranked out by godless socialists.
In different phrases, the poor manufacturing values and shoddy dialogue of these features by some means sign to the core viewership the bona fides of the film’s spiritual commitments and result in business success. In a major instance of the first shall be last and the last shall be first, low-budget fare from Affirm and other like-minded corporations generate substantial returns on investment. Current big-tickets gadgets like Ridley Scott’s Moses movie, Exodus: Gods and Kings, misplaced $80 million within the home market, nevertheless, and Darren Aronofsky’s Noah misplaced close to $25 million, though each more than made up their losses overseas. In nearly the identical time frame, Heaven Is For Real made an 850% profit, although it was rightly dismissed as a bit of Sunday Faculty propaganda, whereas the ham-fisted God’s Not Lifeless, regardless of its being “about as delicate as a stack of Bibles falling on your head” (in Selection’s phrases), made an over 3000% revenue.
Among evangelically targeted manufacturing corporations, such profit shouldn’t be without honor, in fact, and the companies making cheaply produced faith-based ventures have been largely unconcerned about getting the approval on aesthetic or some other grounds of the non-Christian critic or moviegoer. However whereas the payoff is usually very high for such productions, the originality and creativeness are simply as typically very low. The point is put strongly by an government within the faith-based movie industry, Aspiration Media founder Erik Lokkesmoe:
The faith-film class has come to mean agenda-driven, fear-driven, low-quality, low-budget, on-the-nose, educating, industrial films that willingly overlook excellence and story as a result of they know they will. . . . They have educated an viewers to anticipate trite, theologically skinny, bumper-sticker films, designed for church outings.
Studio heads everywhere in the leisure world want to generate income. However these on the artistic aspect are usually interested by making artwork, and this rigidity is felt in the Christian film industry just as it is all over the place else in Hollywood. In a 2014 article about this difficulty for the leisure web site The Wrap, the president of another Christian media company EchoLight, Jeff Sheets, remarked,
We don’t need to make tacky films; we use the phrase “authentic” rather a lot. . . . In the event you weren’t a Christian, I’d want you to observe our film and say, “I’ll not solely agree with their worldview, but that was very nicely accomplished and I sort of get it.”
There’s much to argue over right here, in fact: the declaration that a honest film about spiritual belief will necessarily be seen as “authentic” to its maker and others within the religion group, and “cheesy” to these outdoors of it deserves a hard look. Moreover, those non-Christians Sheets imagines among his viewers might nicely feel a film made on the premise said above is pandering to them much less for inventive appreciation and more in hopes of getting them to open their wallets.
But if we put those objections to the aspect and grant Sheets his level, it is inside this context – the will of the faith-based filmmakers to show their inventive integrity by doing greater than preaching to the choir – that we must be situating Risen. To start with, far extra money ($20 million) was spent to make this movie, and while its field workplace doubled its production prices, it was produced within the hopes of being taken and treated extra critically among mainstream viewers and media. With Risen, it is straightforward to see where the money went. To start with, a well known and fairly gifted director was employed (Kevin Reynolds, whose previous work consists of 1991’s Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and 1995’s Waterworld), a lot of the movie was shot on location in Malta and Spain, a costlier PR marketing campaign was rolled out, and, not least of all, bigger-name actors have been forged, including Tom Felton, previously featured as Draco Malfoy in the Harry Potter collection, and Joseph Fiennes, the star of 1998’s Oscar-winning Shakespeare in Love, as Clavius the Roman army tribune.
Probably the most vital component of Risen’s manufacturing, nevertheless, was the event by screenwriter Paul Aiello of a extra difficult and nuanced screenplay, by which the knowledge of faith that we see in the extra pious Affirm automobiles has been subjected to questioning. As the movie’s detective – with all tenacity and detachment required of the genre – Clavius displays a thoroughgoing skepticism that he’s bewildered finally to need to abandon, although, in the long run, the movie remains a work of Christian apologetics. This is not to suggest that the story is a uninteresting dramatization of a philosophical debate, by any means: there are quite a few tried-and-true elements of the police procedural all through, including examination of witnesses in film noir lighting and a standard police raid with chase scene. However while the inquiry Clavius pursues finally will return to the bedrock religion that Affirm filmgoers anticipate, Aiello has framed the story as a police drama by which a forensic procedure results in an unpredetermined and therefore “goal” end result, the type CSI fans anticipate.
The strain inherent between certainty and doubt is made clear from the film’s very starting. We see Clavius walking by means of a desert landscape and coming to an inn, the place he will relate to the innkeeper what has occurred to him. As a tribune, Clavius has been involved in placing down a Zealot revolt. When he returns to Jerusalem, he’s summoned by Pontius Pilate (played by Peter Firth) to supervise the crucifixion of Jesus (or Yeshua, as he is recurrently referred to as within the movie, performed by Cliff Curtis), although he’s nonetheless bloody from battle. After his demise, Yeshua’s body is positioned within the tomb, however, fearful that his followers will steal it, a Roman seal is put on the tomb and two hapless soldiers put on watch. Because it occurs, the body disappears, and again Pilate turns to Clavius and orders him to seek out the physique earlier than it decomposes. What unfolds subsequent, the longest a part of the film and its real coronary heart, has been referred to as “the best manhunt in historical past” by the film’s publicists and “CSI: Historic Jerusalem” by on-line wags, as Clavius digs by means of burial pits and cross-examines a number of suspects, together with the negligent guards, Mary Magdalene, and the apostle Bartholomew. A dogged investigator, Clavius has left no stone unturned, but none of it is adding up – a couple of days later, he has tracked the Apostles to their abode outdoors the town and bursts in on them, usng his sword to pressure open their door, solely to seek out – Ecce homo! – Yeshua. At this level within the movie, the Roman soldier backs up from the doorway back into the sunlight; Fiennes is shot from under with the sun overwhelming his look, a strong if conventional image of enlightenment. Fairly literally blindsided, Clavius hesitantly calls off the case, though Tom Felton’s Lucius, his lieutenant, presses him to proceed. If ever viewers have been not sure concerning the integrity of Clavius’s moral character, all uncertainty is erased at this second, once we see the censorious look on the face of the actor greatest recognized to us because the smarmy Draco Malfoy.
When Yeshua disappears, once more, Clavius follows the Apostles as they depart, and ultimately joins with them as they make their approach to Galilee. In a single memorable moment, he demands an evidence from the apostle Peter, who expresses his own stunned puzzlement concerning the state of affairs. “I haven’t any reply. We’re astounded, too,” he says.
CLAVIUS: Why not present himself to all? Or can he be slain once again?
PETER: I don’t know. I don’t know. I don’t know. I want I did, but I don’t.
It’s a daring transfer for a movie concerning the origins of Christianity to have Saint Peter – ordinarily a rock of faith in the film tradition, regardless of his notorious triple denial of Christ the night time earlier than his crucifixion – categorical his uncertainties so forcefully, but the filmmakers are wanting to impress the matter of doubt upon their core viewers. In the Dialogue Information that Affirm offered for youth pastors and church group leaders, it is the first matter listed for conversation:
For therefore many people, doubt is a large burden we feature in terms of our religion. We doubt if God actually hears our prayers. We doubt if some elements of the Bible really happened. We doubt whether or not God actually does love us.
Some questions which might be steered embrace the next:
Several occasions because the disciples and Clavius speak, the disciples freely admit they don’t understand every little thing and have doubts too. Do you are feeling like it’s okay to admit when you will have doubts, or do you are feeling strain typically to be 100% certain about God, or the Bible, or prayer?
In the Dad or mum Guide, an analogous question is raised:
In terms of God-stuff in the family, is it straightforward to confess areas the place you’re struggling/doubting, or do you typically feel like it’s a must to fake you’re okay? For those who typically really feel like pretending, why?
If an trustworthy encounter with doubt is where Risen begins, nevertheless, it isn’t (because the title would recommend) where the movie ends. After his encounter with Peter, Clavius will get to see Yeshua another time. Following the Apostles to Galilee, he meets the risen Christ and, ever the detective, continues his questioning. As critics famous, nevertheless, the film at this level becomes more traditional and tedious, as the ambiguities begin to resolve and Risen begins to resemble the remainder of the offerings in the Affirm catalogue. “Tribune, do you actually consider this?” Clavius is asked in the desert inn at the film’s finish, after he has left the Apostles behind to pursue his own journey. He seems out within the middle distance in response, saying, “I consider . . . I can by no means be the same.”
In July 2016, a couple of months after the film’s worldwide release, I was in Los Angeles, and had a conversation with screenwriter Paul Aiello and his brother Patrick Aiello, who was the producer of Risen. They have been very generous with their time, and so much of what I understand concerning the movie I have gotten from its principal creators. One problem I had needed to know more about had to do with the general tone of the film, its setting in Judaea as an occupied country. Have been Iraq and Afghanistan in your thoughts for this movie? I asked, to which Paul replied,
They have been very a lot on my mind, very a lot in my considering. Clavius very much needs to go residence; he is uninterested in being in this place. It’s the identical factor with us, the identical problems we are seeing. But yes, occupation was 100% on my mind. How ironic is it that we’re again in the identical area?
I had hoped for more dialogue from Aiello on the subject, frankly, but he had little extra so as to add, and once I went on to ask whether the Zealots thus might be seen as jihadists indirectly, he demurred. My unique thought had been that perhaps there was a type of political commentary in having the Romans as occupying forces stand in for People (and let me observe that I have not spoken with director Kevin Reynolds, who may nicely have such ideas in mind), however Paul indicated that we aren’t seeing a critique of any specific struggle in Risen, however quite a depiction of war-weariness as a means of representing disenchantment with the issues of this world. As Patrick stated of Peter Firth’s Pilate in his film, “Pilate is often represented as so rigid. We needed to see him more worn-down. You word that he’s all the time reaching for a glass of wine.” And it’s true. All through the film, Pilate appears continuously to be consuming when he isn’t bathing: he washes not just his palms, it appears, however his whole physique, whilst he attempts to drown his sorrows.
Actually, there’s a moment early on when Clavius is within the tub with Pilate, who’s grateful for the tribune’s service for each crucifixion and the sealing of the tomb. As they attempt to soak away the day’s troubles, they speak.
PILATE: Your ambition is observed. The place do you hope it is going to lead?
CLAVIUS: Place. Energy.
PILATE: Which brings?
CLAVIUS: Wealth. A great household. Someday place in the nation.
PILATE: The place you’ll find?
CLAVIUS: An end to travail. A day without dying. (Pause) Peace.
PILATE: All that for peace? Is there no different approach?
Pilate, who has had a goblet in hand all the time, then exits the bathtub for bed, saying, “Tomorrow promises further punishment,” though it’s unsure whether or not he signifies that which he’ll inflict or that which he will endure: though he’s the chief army and political officer in this a part of the world, the imperial job appears to demand more of the prefect than it provides. Say what you will about these scenes, they’re definitely more delicate than “a stack of Bibles falling in your head,” and a few of the dialogue here is the kind of factor you may very nicely hear from veterans just lately returned from their very own engagements in the Middle East.
Another question I had for Paul was the identify of Fiennes’s character, Clavius, a Latinate enough-sounding identify but not likely a classical one. “Have you learnt who Christopher Clavius was?” he asked in response. For many who is probably not accustomed to the history of science, Clavius (1537-1612) was a big figure, a German-born Jesuit who was a number one mathematician and astronomer. A highly revered figure in his day, Clavius was an admirer of Galileo, with whom he corresponded, although on spiritual grounds he could not deliver himself to simply accept the Copernican system for which Galileo would ultimately be condemned. Nonetheless, toward the top of his own life, intellectual honesty compelled Clavius to ponder what influence Galileo’s insights would have upon the church’s geocentric understanding of the universe. As one scholar remarks, “The failure of the Ptolemaic cosmology to measure as much as the scientific demands of early seventeenth-century astronomy should have bewildered Clavius.” Having peered by way of Galileo’s telescope, Clavius turned uncertain about what was actually true within the system of which he was a principal part, and, just like the Clavius of Risen, the evidence of his own eyes required an enormous paradigm shift. Artfully and certainly learnedly, Aiello’s screenplay employs the identify of a principal determine in the scientific revolution as a means of pointing to the transformative expertise of the epiphany for his Roman tribune.
Though named for a sixteenth-century man of studying, Clavius additionally has a more quick mannequin in tv. As a dramatic matter, Patrick Aiello advised me, the jokes about CSI: Historic Jerusalem all have a sound basis because Risen could be very a lot patterned after a TV detective show. “The film actually follows the template of Chinatown,” he stated. “And yeah, the Netflix mandate is at work here. Procedural dramas have an ideal shelf life. This can be a template that is in the Zeitgeist, an easy formulation to work with and for viewers to deal with.” Twenty-first-century People love such exhibits – CSI has been on since before the George W. Bush presidency – and so Risen provides them the story of Jesus as a dramatized police case. Indeed, we see a sundial and an anachronistic hourglass on Clavius’s desk, as we’d see a clock on a detective’s, iconographic emblems of the detective’s race towards time. In a deleted scene, Clavius handles the bodily evidence of the crown of thorns and the Shroud of Turin-like blanket that coated Yeshua’s corpse. What we’re to know is that Clavius is a dispassionate investigator working on a case, following to their logical conclusions the outcomes of his inquiries. However there comes a moment when the logical conclusion is that a man whom he has seen die and whom he himself has buried is decidedly not lifeless. This cannot be true, he thinks, and but it have to be. In an strange mystery, we’d anticipate the detective to stroll away from the case in frustration at such a flip of occasions, as happens at the end of Chinatown. In Risen, nevertheless, Clavius walks away from his world and into the encompassing desert.
There’s a logical contradiction – what philosophers name a reductio ad absurdum – within the proceedings of Risen that may absolutely justify the film or TV detective’s exasperation. Clavius is for certain that Yeshua is lifeless – he has attended personally to it on the cross, and overseen the burial – and but he has seen Yeshua alive together with his own eyes. Which is it – alive or not? For it can’t be each. Associated with Christopher Clavius, nevertheless, is a logical theorem that as an alternative seeks to reconcile such contradictions by invoking the miraculous. Referred to as the Consequentia Mirablis, “the fantastic consequence” or the Lex Clavia, “Clavius’s Regulation,” this theorem establishes that a proposition could be thought-about true if its negation just isn’t logically consistent. As Paul Aiello wrote to me in a follow-up e-mail on this level,
It’s a big identify for the movie, as a result of Clavius is a detective figure, a person using scientific technique to unravel a problem – right here he is proving a fact by a negation, a lacking body to show the resurrection. . . . Clavius the character and his arc have been created and written earlier than I found the identify. Yes, I used the identify because he mirrored Christopher Clavius’s regulation and actually proves it by what the tribune goes via on his mission. And if the viewer have been to take these biblical occasions as proof, they could wrestle with them however would reach an analogous conclusion. Nevertheless, probably the most vital factor for me about Clavius shouldn’t be his identify however his transformation from a man trapped in countless days of dying to an unlikely discoverer of a new life and freedom by way of Christ. And he’s a forerunner of many Romans to return, which results in the Empire’s change.
To make certain, the philosophical points that Clavius’s Regulation treats appear to be reflected within the case Clavius has set out to clear up. Whereas skeptical viewers might not essentially come to the same conclusion that the film’s skeptical protagonist has, nonetheless they acknowledge that in what is ordinarily an unchallenging kind of film, Risen is searching greater intellectual recreation – even critics who panned the movie provided grudging admiration for the formidable script. “For a movie that would have easily turn into slowed down in Sunday Faculty reverence, or culture-war opportunism, Risen presents an intriguing, oblique strategy to a Bible film,” wrote one critic, whereas one other remarked, “Risen continues to be extra nuanced than the lion’s share of current faith-based dramas.”
Earlier than his march to the desert inn, the scene with which Risen begins, Clavius has a ultimate dialog in Galilee with Yeshua, who puts his hand on the tribune’s shoulder and begins to question the questioner: “What’s it you search, Clavius? Certainty? Peace? A day without dying?” Listening to his own wishes, expressed in Pilate’s tub earlier within the film, repeated again to him in such a special context, Clavius provides Yeshua a look someplace between bafflement and understanding, before he finally seems down to interrupt into a broad smile. At this crucial moment within the narrative arc, with this remaining touch on Clavius’s body and the final cheerful look on his face, the Aiellos’ film attempts to be all things to all individuals. For the normal Affirm filmgoer, the smile alerts the start of the top of Clavius’s travails, maybe recalling St. Augustine’s basic expression about aid from religious nervousness, “Our coronary heart is stressed till it finds rest in you, Lord.” A more agnostic viewer may be much less sanguine. An Apostle not depicted within the film, Doubting Thomas, had once declared, “Until I see the nail marks in his palms and put my finger where the nails have been, and put my hand into his aspect, I can’t consider it” (John 20:25). When Jesus appeared to him every week later, Thomas did not avail himself of the chance to look at the wound but merely declared, “My Lord and my God” (John 20:27-28). Clavius has required more proof, which Yeshua has fortunately offered by revealing Clavius’s own wishes to him and then including a pat on the shoulder – the kind of encouragement even a skeptic appreciates in addition to the physical proof a detective, historic or trendy, requires to conclude a case.
As a film, Risen is the product of a sub-industry whose main supply of success is in providing pious pablum for a complacent and undiscriminating Christian market (although, to be truthful, this market isn’t made up solely of complacent and undiscriminating viewers, nor are complacency and a scarcity of discrimination characteristics only of Christian moviegoers), but all through the movie there’s an specific try and challenge the certitudes of its core audience. At occasions, Risen does indeed resemble an open-ended investigation. That is unsurprising, give how intently the conversion narrative right here has been patterned after the police procedural in its try and deliver concerning the decision of ambiguities. At other occasions, nevertheless, the movie is more clearly a piece of advocacy, with the viewer never in any genuine doubt concerning the absolute factuality of Christ’s resurrection – the movie’s title, in any case, is just not a lot a spoiler as it’s a signal of reassurance to the standard Affirm shopper that the difficulty of Christ’s resurrection won’t be subject to any lasting critique. In the long run, the resolution of Clavius’s doubt in all probability does little to resolve anyone else’s – to see an on-screen skeptic transformed, in any case, is to not be a skeptic in the viewers converted – and most viewers possible end the film in much the identical frame of mind as they began it. In the long run, the missed opportunities in the movie are legion. It might have been exceptional to see a more sustained engagement with the logical contradictions of the Lex Clavia within the film’s dialogue – how substantive it may need been had Fiennes’s Clavius truly tried to cause the issue though with Felton’s Lucius (who’s otherwise wasted on this movie) moderately than merely dismissing him. And the reliance on a smiling Yeshua to unravel the mystery is as lazy an invocation of the classical deus ex machina idea as you may discover in a movie. Few of us get a shoulder rub from the Messiah to assuage our troubled spirits, in any case. And it’s disappointing, too, to not have seen more completed with the wartime setting beyond the thought of battle fatigue as a metaphor for soul-weariness. Still, by acknowledging that modern People belief forensic investigators more than spiritual establishments, the producers of Risen have attempted to offer a extra difficult if finally nonetheless orthodox version of the normal movie concerning the Ardour. Undoubtedly, filmmakers targeted on the evangelical market will proceed to supply low cost and straightforward fare for his or her primary audience, though some may take their cue from the reception to Risen and rise to the challenge of extra difficult works about religion and doubt.
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Until in any other case said, all pictures are screenshots from the film, courtesy of Columbia Footage/Sony Affirm.