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“Tutti fratelli”: Solferino, Italy and Humanity’s Wounds

The Battle of Solferino - wounded

Henri Dunant had come to Italy on enterprise. However when he arrived in northern Italy he as an alternative witnessed the Battle of Solferino. Right here the armies of the French and Austro-Hungarian Empires and of the Kingdom of Sardinia have been engaged in an awesome battle to determine who would rule within the Po Valley (an important step within the start of Italy as a rustic).

When Henri Dunant noticed the tens of hundreds of wounded within the fields in any case was over, his coronary heart crammed with compassion for his fellow human beings. He organised look after the wounded. Realising the necessity, he went on to contribute to the founding of the Worldwide Pink Cross, to the adoption of the Geneva Conventions and by the top of his life he was shared the primary worldwide peace prize for his humanitarian work.

The story of his private response to scenes of carnage and the struggling of the wounded and dying and his efforts to organise volunteers and assets to look after them has been advised many occasions. Dunant’s e-book: A Reminiscence of Solferino, is an early instance of conflict journalism. The e-book is a vivid private memoir of what he noticed. His e-book can also be by the way  witness to a bitter second in Italian historical past. It’s inconceivable to not really feel the horror of what Dunant recounts; and never be moved to compassion for the struggling of males now lengthy lifeless. The barbarity of conflict, the the Aristocracy it typically evokes, the pitiless (or determined) greed of looters and the compassion of others are all laid naked in his account. Humanity in all our complexity is laid naked and the insanity of conflict couldn’t be clearer.

Henri Dunant’s descriptions of the Battle of Solferino

Right here is hand-to-hand wrestle in all its horror and frightfulness; Austrians and Allies trampling one another beneath foot, killing each other in piles of bleeding corpses, felling their enemies with their rifle butts, crushing skulls, ripping bellies open with sabre and bayonet. No quarter is given; it’s a sheer butchery; a wrestle between savage beasts, maddened with blood and fury. Even the wounded struggle to the final gasp. Once they haven’t any weapon left, they seize their enemy by the throat and tear them with their tooth.

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, p 19

Dunant contrasts such scenes with scenes of heroism the place all of a sudden we see plenty of anonymous beasts reworked into visions of particular person human braveness who sacrifice life and security in service to their nation.

What number of courageous troopers, undeterred by their first wounds, stored urgent on till a recent shot introduced them to earth, they usually might struggle no extra. 

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, pp 32-33

The aftermath of the battle is ghastly. 

When the solar got here up on the twenty-fifth, it disclosed probably the most dreadful websites conceivable. Our bodies of males and horses coated the battlefield; corpses have been strewn over roads, ditches, ravines, thickets and fields;the approaches of Solferino have been actually thick with lifeless. The fields have been devastated, wheat and corn mendacity flat on the bottom, fences damaged, orchards ruined, … The villages have been abandoned and bore the scars left by musket photographs, bombs, rockets, grenades and shells. Partitions have been damaged down and pierced with gaps the place cannonballs had crashed by way of them. Homes have been riddled with holes, shattered and ruined, and their inhabitants, who had been hiding, crouching in cellars with out mild or meals for twenty hours, have been starting to crawl out, wanting surprised on the terrors that they had endured. 

It took three days and three nights to bury the lifeless on the battlefield, however in such a large space many our bodies … have been solely discovered a lot later …

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, pp 41-42, 48

“Tutti Fratelli”: tending to the wounded

Probably the most shifting scenes are these the place Dunant and lots of others reply to the hundreds of wounded in search of to help them both of their final moments or to save lots of their lives.

Oh, the agony and struggling of these days … Wounds have been contaminated by mud and warmth, by scarcity of water and lack of correct care … Males lay aspect by aspect on the flagstone flooring of the church buildings of Castiglione — Frenchmen, Arabs and Slavs. … They referred to as out of their misery for a physician, and writhed in determined contortions that led to dying. … With faces black with flies that swarmed about their wounds, males gazed round them wild-eyed and helpless. Others have been not more than a worm-ridden, inextricable compound of coat and shirt and flesh and blood. …

Earlier than lengthy a gaggle of volunteers was shaped … Almost 5 hundred troopers have been there, piled within the [Chiesa Maggiore]and 100 extra lay outdoors on straw in entrance of the church, with strips of canvas to guard them from the solar. The ladies [of Castiglione] entered the church buildings, and went from one man to a different with jars and canteens filled with pure water to quench their thirst and moisten their wounds. A few of these improvised nurses have been lovely and charming women. Their gentleness and kindness, their tearful and compassionate appears, and their attentive care helped revive slightly braveness among the many sufferers. The boys of the neighbourhood ran forwards and backwards between the church buildings and the closest fountains with buckets, canteens, and watering pots.

… the ladies of Castiglione, seeing that I made no distinction between nationalities, adopted my instance, displaying the identical kindness to all these males whose origins have been so totally different, and all of whom have been foreigners to them. “Tutti fratelli”, they repeated feelingly. All honour to these compassionate ladies, to those women of Castiglione! Imperturbable, unwearying, unfalteringly, their quiet self-sacrifice made little of fatigue and horrors, and of their very own devotion. 

The sensation one has of 1’s personal utter inadequacy in such extraordinary and solemn circumstances is unspeakable. It’s certainly, excessively distressing to understand which you could by no means do greater than assist those that are in simply earlier than you … 

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, pp 60-64, 72

Those that arose to serve the wounded of their flip suffered damage; on this case to their psychological well-being. Others had been recruited to assist, however most might solely final a number of days.

Earlier than lengthy, … our … volunteer helpers withdrew one after the other, for they might not bear to look upon struggling which they might achieve this little to alleviate. … One French vacationer, overcome by the sight of the dwelling wrecks earlier than him, burst into sudden sobs. A Neuchâtel service provider devoted himself for 2 entire days to dressing wounds, and writings letters to their households for dying males. It turned vital, for his personal sake, to restrain his zeal …

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, pp 64-65

And dying: the knowledge of demise; for therefore many who they tended of their final moments.

“Don’t let me die!” a few of these poor fellows would exclaim — after which, all of a sudden seizing my hand, with extraordinary vigour, they felt their entry of power depart them, and died. … A younger Corporal … There was no hope for him, and of this he was absolutely conscious. Once I helped him to drink, he thanked me, and added with tears in his eyes: “Oh, Sir, should you might write to my father to consolation my mom!” I famous his mother and father’ tackle, and a second later he had ceased to reside. 

Henri Dunant, A Reminiscence of Solferino, p 66

Humanity’s Wounds

When such strains are learn, it’s onerous to consider that any trigger could possibly be value such monstrous scenes of human struggling. They’re scenes which humanity continues to repeat into the current.

The Battle of Solferino was one among Europe’s biggest battles of the 19th century, taking greater than 40,000 lives. It was carried out by nations which, on the time, esteemed themselves as consultant of the peak of human civilization.

Aside from its significance for Italian unification, because the battle was a part of the Second Italian Warfare of Independence,  it shifted balances of energy in Europe. Step-by-step Europe was sliding in the direction of world warfare.

In Dunant’s account humanity’s wounds are laid naked. Not simply of the person troopers whose bodily wounds he tended, however the wounds within the physique politic of humanity.

Italy, as a lot, if no more, than many locations, for a lot of her historical past, has been the scene of the vicious conflicts that tear humanity aside. For Italy’s geography and historical past lie throughout wounds of politics, faith, tradition and human ambition. For a lot of centuries it was a playground through which the powers of Europe performed a “Nice Recreation”. Earlier it lay on the fracture strains between partisans of Papal Energy and Imperial energy. Earlier nonetheless it was the scene of Christian and Islamic divisions; or Orthodox and Catholic competitors; or Roman and German warfare; or of interminable inner conflicts between factions inside a metropolis; or between baronial privilege and monarchical prerogative inside bigger states.

Italy’s entrapment in these inner and exterior conflicts has been a strong think about its historical past. 


Henri Dunant on the Battle of Solferino, 1860s

Sources and Notes

The first supply for this text was Henri Dunant’s A Reminiscence of Solferino. The complete textual content could be learn on-line on the web site of the Worldwide Purple Cross. Extra could be examine Henri Dunant’s life at 

Castiglione refers back to the city of Castiglione delle Stiviere, close by Solferino, within the province of Mantua. A second has been erected within the city paying tribute to the ladies who Dunant memorialises.